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Create your website at WordPress. The inglorious exception is Europe, of all places, where the triumphal march of photovoltaics began.
Currently, political support is crumbing there, however. The absurdity of the situation may be seen from the following comparison.
His invention revolutionised our ideas on mobility. Now just imagine what would have happened if the politicians of the day had decided to limit the spread of motorised vehicles in order not to harm the business of horsedrawn carriage manufacturers.
As I have said, that would be absurd. But unfortunately, European energy policies in numerous European states are following just such a pattern.
The requirements of conventional power plants are being allowed to determine the shape of future energy systems. It is thus no surprise that other regions of the world have taken on the leading role in the expansion of renewable energy.
The motives may be different in each case, but the result is that China, Japan and the USA are the leading photovoltaics markets today on the global stage.
Numerous Latin-American countries have also seen the advantages of expanding renewable energy use over an increased use Solar Edition of conventional power plants.
Apart from the use of hydropower, it is mainly solar and wind farms on which hopes are being pinned. The national economic benefits are clear; conventional plants are often dependent on fossil fuel imports, but if these are replaced by wind and solar electricity, then the trade balance and the home economy are less strained, not to mention the creation of jobs.
A grid-independent electricity supply from their own solar farms is thus quickly becoming a lucrative alternative. It is hardly surprising that project developers from Spain and France are now preferring to build solar farms for industrial customers in South America than in their respective home countries.
But also at the other end of the scale, that is supplying individual homes, photovoltaics is beginning to play to its particular strengths in South America and other parts of the world.
Electricity from photovoltaics, which can replace expensive diesel fuel in PV-diesel hybrid plants, is meanwhile a real alternative.
It is economic without any state aid at all and is being provided by companies in the solar sector as a technically mature solution.
No, the two are not quite compatible enough for that. And some day, in an age of electric mobility, combustion engines on the roads may become synonymous with horsedrawn carriages.
The sale of micro-inverters and DC optimizers on the American market is continuously growing. Some manufacturers have already left the niche market.
They should soon be followed by others. However, maintenance and installation also play a major role.
Operators who are stingy with fluids or negligent with maintenance risk ruining first the fluid and, eventually, the entire solar power plant.
Still, despite more than 1 GW of projects registered, most of these developments will have to wait at least until to see the light of day.
The much-awaited legal reform is expected to trigger a sector with good perspectives. Analysts predict more than 8 GW by the end of the year.
Additionally, there is a bound-in supplement at the end of the magazine with a translation of various articles into Spanish. From 26 to 28 August, when it opens its doors at the Expo Center Norte, its organisers expect bustling interest in their solar trade fair.
T hey have plenty of reasons to be optimistic. After all, the South American photovoltaics market has been developing brilliantly for some time.
In terms of annual photovoltaic installations, the South American continent exceeded the 5 MW threshold for the first time ever in And the market is just getting started.
What goes for the continent, goes for the host country of Intersolar South America as well. For the first time ever the national government has initiated tendering for solar projects.
The national energy agency has also published targets for the development of solar power. By , the government wants to see systems with a total capacity of 3.
By that time the registrations already exceeded the number of participants that attended the last trade fair. Their stands saw 2, visitors from 22 different countries.
Even so, And the event is not just limited to Brazil. Of course, the positive development of the Chilean market will also be a hot topic at Intersolar South America.
The same goes for Argentina and Uruguay, where interest in solar electricity and heating is taking off. And not to forget the small Carribean countries, where some large-scale ground-mounted systems are already in service.
Still, there are far too few of such systems. As is appropriate for an Intersolar event, the organisers have also put together a large conference, which runs for three days parallel to the exhibition.
The conference, too, is concerned with the topics of photovoltaics and solar thermal. Of course, the conference also sheds light on the Brazilian market and the various possibilities it offers.
In addition to presenting the range of technologies, there will be a PV focus topic on off-grid and stand-alone solutions because the Latin American market is so well suited to such installations.
In Chile, for instance, he mining industry is already using these systems on a grand scale. The implementation and financing of projects will be yet another topic of discussion.
The Brazilian Congress of Solar Heating is embedded within the conference, in the solar thermal area, and is organised by the National Department of Solar Heating.
They see enormous potential. Parallel events The three-day conference also promises to be an interesting forum, yet again.
The simultaneous scheduling was carefully planned by the organisers of the two events. Engelhard speaks of synergy effects. That was revealed last year when both events also took place at the same time.
In addition, there are representatives of energy providers and telecommunications companies. This is yet another trade fair accompanied by a simultaneous conference.
And in this case, the overlapping topics are obvious. After all, at Greenbuilding everything revolves around the topic of sustainable building.
In addition to thermal insulation for buildings, there is a strong focus on efficient and environment-friendly methods of building cooling.
That also goes for water harvesting technologies and especially ways to save water during daily use in South America. At the same time, it offers a springboard for those who would like to be active there in the future.
The conference takes place on Tuesday, 26 August from 11 am until pm, and on Wednesday and Thursday from 9 am until pm. MOD photon.
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Market researchers expect total installed capacity to be close to the 20 GW mark at the end of Photo: Paul Wiegman On the way to being an established market The United States of America is now the third-largest PV market in the world, and experts say that its potential has not been exhausted yet.
The solar thermal market is also gradually gaining importance. At the end of the year, the USA had more than , solar plants.
PV plants generated The U. PV and CSP systems with a total output of 2. California still in the lead With a newly installed capacity of 2.
Arizona comes next with MW. Texas and Georgia were also among the ten largest markets. The fourth and fifth-largest markets were Massachusetts and New Jersey, each of which had a newly installed capacity of around MW.
In six states, including Arizona, Massachusetts and New Jersey, the only new power plants that were built in were solar.
This is more than half of overall growth. Large-scale systems are sought-after pieces of property in the USA.
Large power plants, however, are not the only business area where there is notable activity. These include commercial and industrial installations as well as installations on public buildings.
Success stories and foreign competition Although the growth of the U. Many U. Among the companies that filed for insolvency are well-known names such as the module manufacturers Evergreen Solar and MX Solar USA, the cell manufacturer Solyndra and the inverter manufacturer Satcon, to name just a few examples.
The reason for their downfall was, and still is, foreign-made solar products, which are available in the USA at prices that U. Foreign companies such as Sharp or Mage Solar, which used to manufacture components in the USA, have quit producing there.
Nevertheless, the country remains interesting for foreign companies. Solar Market are. The big U. Low production costs have become extremely important to be able to compete in the USA.
Sunpower, one of the largest solar companies in the USA, seems to have anticipated this development ahead of time. Early on, the vertically integrated company, which has its headquarters in San Jose, California, began to move its production facilities to foreign countries.
This allowed Sunpower to present a good balance sheet for the first quarter of this year. This new capacity will allow us to address the growing demand for our high efficiency solar systems.
This is an increase of million over the previous quarter. The company was also the largest project developer last year, due to the fact that it installs modules as an EPC contractor directly in large-scale projects.
Finlay Colville, Vice President of Solarbuzz, expects that First Solar will continue to expand its production capacity for thin-film modules through SolarWorld is also benefiting from the demand in the USA.
There were as many new systems installed in the USA during the first quarter as the declining German market is expecting for the entire year The company has cell and module production facilities in the United States with capacities of and MW, respectively.
The potential of solar thermal is not being fully exploited In general, the U. The northeast and the southwest are particularly well-suited, due to the high energy costs in those areas as well as the good natural conditions.
Nevertheless, the solar thermal market is still relatively small. With 9 GW of installed solar thermal power, the USA ranks 36 in the world in terms of per capita power output.
The largest number of solar thermal systems are installed in China GWth and Europe The existing potential is not being fully used.
Interest in alternative sources of energy rises along with rising costs. The association intends to leverage the momentum and has published a plan to increase the installed capacity of systems for solar heating and cooling in the USA to a total of GWth by In order to achieve this, million new solar collectors need to be installed.
The planned investments would create 50, jobs and save more than 61 billion U. In addition, this would enable the United States Solar energy systems can also be found in more and more wildlife parks in the USA, such as shown here in Yosemite National Park.
According to SEIA, solar thermal systems are the most efficient type of renewable energy to heat and cool with.
The cost is only 0. Nevertheless, some voices are advising caution in the area of PV, and they are coming from the market research company Solarbuzz.
The analysts are warning that the industry is in danger because states are reducing the required minimum proportion of renewable energy in electricity generation and they also intend to scale back net-metering.
The biggest threat, however, is the uncertainty resulting from the trade dispute over solar imports from China and Taiwan.
Milan Nitzschke, spokesperson for SolarWorld, warns against dumping prices. Dumping prices and market dominance have severely damaged the acceptance of solar energy in Europe.
This must not be repeated in the USA. It is important that the USA retains its own PV industry, and that China does not deprive the next market of its domestic industry.
Solar modules barely account for a quarter of system prices in the USA. A tariff on Chinese dumping imports would not slow down the growth, but would instead allow for fair and sustainable competition.
Our latest innovation is the CMP10 pyranometer. The business climate index for the international solar thermal industry is compiled annually by the Solrico agency.
It is based on a points system, with the help of which the current and future market development can be evaluated on a scale from 0 to End customers are still largely unaware that solar thermal offers a much cheaper solution with which a large proportion of their utility costs could be covered.
In California it is around 0. Be impressed: snapinverter. In combination with the federal tax credit it makes extremely short amortization times possible.
At first, only commercial systems were supported with this programme but as the applications from this segment were insufficient to use up the available funds, private installations were also included.
Now, commercial swimming pool systems are also being supported. This policy is reflected in the development of the individual segments.
When considering which segment is currently the best US-wide, one needs to differentiate between the regions.
Collectors from Europe are becoming scarcer. The best reason for this was once explained to me by SunEarth boss Cully Judd: the load area of the Ford F pickup has exactly enough space for the 4 x 10 ft collectors.
The reason for this is the costs. These are competitive in Europe with their systems in terms of price and have only a small group of competitors there.
The company Enerconcept, which is also based in Canada, started targeting Europe some years ago and its glazed Lubi collector has been approved for BAFA support in Germany since The fact that air collectors can now be certified in Europe and are therefore eligible for support is a result of the new collector norm EN , which in its current version now includes air-based collectors for the first time.
These types of programme are essential because heating is often the largest consumer of energy in buildings and therefore any plan to reduce GHG emissions must target space heating.
And then some. To exhibit or sponsor at SPI is to impact your bottom line exponentially. Apart from environmental awareness and the increased comfort solar thermal offers, over time customers have come to see the technology as an opportunity for financial investment.
In several regions of Brazil a solar water heater SWH pays for itself in less than two years without any subsidies through the savings it provides in electricity.
The Brazilian economy has struggled through elevated interest rates, a high tax burden and an uncomfortable inflation rate.
The shortage of direct stimulus or specific credit schemes, along with low purchasing power, have helped create a framework that undermines the efforts of consumers to acquire solar water heating systems.
So, what is the true potential of solar thermal energy in Brazil? Another means of evaluation is to compare Brazil with other countries.
Germany, for example, has five times the solar collector concentration per resident than Brazil, but its per capita energy consumption rate is three times higher.
Adjusting for its lower energy consumption, Brazil would have to grow its solar thermal capacity by 1. Obstacles and risks These rough estimates show that the potential is there but more than a few challenges also stand in the way of breaking through current limited use of solar thermal.
The industrial processes segment, for instance, is at square one. Creation of a value chain, professional training, research and development, design references, awareness of usage, and more appropriate business models will all require time and effort.
Some initiatives are already in progress, but as with the structuring of the first markets, unity and coordinated actions amongst the various players are fundamental to generating the necessary momentum.
Recent events in the European renewable energy industry have illustrated this danger all too clearly.
The consequences of these policies are falling economic growth accompanied by a resurgence of inflation, deteriorating public finances, an increase in key interest rates and a devalued currency.
This has a clear impact on the civil construction sector, which is fundamental to the solar heating industry.
On the other hand, we need to be aware of the current energy situation. The country is suffering from an unusually dry year.
Because its electricity infrastructure is based mainly on hydro power, the consequences could be serious, resulting in energy rationing, surcharges and inevitable price hikes.
Given this situation the use of solar water heating is even more attractive. On top of all this, a presidential election is slated for the end of the year.
It can assuredly count on the security and soundness of its traditional, mature and viable residential market but the dynamic of the current macroeconomic environment requires close attention.
Brazilian electricity market Industrial consumption of electricity is almost twice that of residential. But in the U. Now, as PV module price drops slow and incentives dry up, these companies are looking at other ways to reduce the costs of installing solar.
A trend of consolidation in the downstream solar industry is emerging as companies acquire or merge with other companies to extend their capabilities.
Small installers, small financing providers, various specialty companies to squeeze out cost there need to be economies of scale, which means consolidation.
Large solar installers lead consolidation One of the most well-covered acquisitions in the downstream U.
Vivint Solar purchased Solmetric, a solar metrics and testing company, while Sunrun purchased Mainstream Energy, and its subsidiaries, including its residential solar installer, REC Solar.
At the time of the purchase SolarCity said the equipment allowed the company to install residential PV arrays in one day rather than the two or three day period it took with other mounting and racking systems.
Simply optimal. Solar Edition President of Operations said in announcing the acquisition. We will also continue to maintain the open nature of the Zep compatible platform and continue to support integration with module manufacturers and other vendors.
Paramount Solar specialised in over-the-phone and virtual sales leads. That purchase was intended to help the company lower its customer acquisition costs, which can become expensive in particularly An example for residential systems built by Vivint Solar in Massachusetts OTDC has a modular design that makes it adaptable to a wide variety of installation requirements.
Photos 2 : Vivint Solar homes by Sunrun took another approach. The company had financed residential home solar systems and contracted with other companies to install the solar array.
This year it started to change that with the purchase of Mainstream Energy and its subsidiaries. REC Solar is one of the larger residential solar installers in the country, giving Sunrun access to a full-fledged installer.
It gained solar distributor AEE Solar. It also gained SnapNrack a racking equipment manufacturer that, like Zep Solar, designs equipment to reduce the time it takes to install rooftop solar.
REC Solar was the big part of that transaction though. Gauntlett called that purchase a win-win. Sunrun was a pure financing provider. All of its installation was outsourced.
Unlike SolarCity, which has focussed on acquiring customers through direct marketing, phone and online sales, Vivint built its reputation through door-to-door sales in home security and automation.
One interesting entrant is NRG Energy. But the company is also interested in installing solar on homes. To that end it purchased solar installer Roof Diagnostics in March.
They have the name recognition. But it may be harder for that company to establish itself in the residential market which already has a number of larger players like SolarCity.
Molchanov notes that Solar Universe, a solar installer, purchased Gen, a consulting firm that, like Paramount, helps solar installers do customer acquisition.
That company developed a hybrid solar technology that uses both PV and solar thermal to power and heat and cool homes. Real Goods Solar, a publicly traded solar installer purchased two solar installers, Mercury Solar and Syndicated Solar, within the same week of August Both companies provided solar monitoring software and were leaders in the space, making the combined entity that much more of a leader in the industry.
Sunrun and Sungevity partnered to put solar on 10, rooftops in the U. Under that partnership Sungevity is recruiting the customers while Sunrun is providing the financing and ownership.
They know the opportunity is big. Going forward in this market, particularly in the third-party financing market where a lot of money is financing the projects, he anticipates that such partnerships will be key to moving forward.
Both Molchanov and Gauntlett anticipate that consolidation will continue. As such, anticipate a diverse mix of consolidation activity in the residential U.
Anything related that will streamline the installation process and reduce the amount of admin or overhead required and marketing required to get the customer.
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Despite the many barriers still existing, it is expected that some MW of new PV capacity will be installed during the next year.
T he year is about to become the turning point for the Chilean PV sector. After years of a discouraging discrepancy between almost 10 GW of projects under development and the actually installed capacity, the tenacity of solar developers to overcome barriers is starting to bear fruit.
The installed PV capacity has already exceeded the MW mark. By commissioning 4 new PV plants during the first quarter Chile has multiplied its PV park capacity twentyfold.
Also, it was a positive experience that seems to be fruitful for both partners. Solarpack is currently completing this plant.
None of these plants exceed 3 MW, as plants smaller than 3 MW can benefit from a fasttrack approval procedure. Mining and solar: a marriage of convenience The attractiveness of PPA The fact that most of these projects are located close to a mining facility is not a mere coincidence.
It is an important milestone that marks a before and after in the Chilean PV sector. Despite these success stories, the difficulty to acquire the cherished PPAs is still one of the main barriers that PV developers have to face.
Besides, the exact amounts paid by the miners in their PPAs remain a secret. In fact, they really start with the land use rights.
Most of the on-going PV projects are developed on desert lands, mostly state-owned, and not only are the available sites scarce, but the procedure to achieve the rights to use the land is a lengthy and costly process.
Besides, the economic securities required by the Ministry of National Assets are large and come at an early stage of the development process, which makes it harder for developers to complete the project.
This guarantee may be called in if the construction is not completed within a 2-year period. In this round there are sites available in the Antofagasta Region, with an overall area of 2, hectares.
Traditionally there have been frictions to claim the mining rights in a country with a huge dependency on the primary sector, especially in the northern regions where most of the PV plants are being planned.
The generally esteemed transparency of the Chilean sector and the SEIA environmental evalua- Solar Edition tion system allows an evaluation of where most of the plants will be located and what their main characteristics will be right from the early stages.
Maybe that is why ACERA recommends its associates to cover all the arising problems and to have secured the mining rights before going public with the project.
In fact, having those rights is a compulsory requisite in order to reach a financial agreement. Most banks are asking developers to have the mining rights agreed at the site where a plant is planned right from the early stages too.
Financing and new models All the interviewees recognised that financing a PV project in Chile is a tough nut to crack.
In this case the fact of not having a PPA was not a barrier to obtaining financing. Equity investors are also entering the Chilean solar market.
Both have a portfolio of 15 solar projects totalling MW, out of which MW are expected to come online this year, all of them in the northern SING system.
Even the latest governmental energy agenda does not expect the connection of more than a further MW by the year in the SING. The areas selected to develop new PV plants have important grid constraints and the network capacity is only expected to be enlarged in the years to Moreover, the current governmental energy agenda does not expect that the solar penetration will be higher than 2.
That is why the Chilean solar sector eagerly awaits the new grid infrastructures promised by the government in its energy road map.
PV in the government bids The PV sector is also waiting for the incorporation of solar projects into the public bidding process to supply electricity distributors.
Enel Green Power has made a move here. The Italian consortium can boast of being the first winning tenderer in an electricity bid to be supplied partly by solar.
At a price of Enel indicates that this supply will be made thanks to a plant already in operation as well as three new plants 2 wind power and 1 solar.
Even if the report only mentions an overall new installed capacity of MW by , everything seems to indicate that it refers to the Lalackama PV project totalling MW expected to come online at the end of in the Taltal Municipality and to the Diego de Almagro 36 MW PV plant expected to come online in August This commitment with nature is also reflected on its electricity matrix, which has a share of Even if the demand for electricity in Costa Rica has slowed down, there is a need to plan adequately for the foreseen increase in the near future.
Moreover, in recent years the generation from hydro has declined due to a diminished amount of rain in the country, considered already as an impact of climate change.
As well, the number of profitable sites for new hydro and geothermal power plants is decreasing, or the sites are available on protected areas.
For this reason the use of diesel and heavy fuel oil has increased in recent years. Solar Edition Under this panorama there is a need for alternative solutions, where solar energy appears as one of the main sources of energy to provide part of this future demand.
One of the first initiatives was the creation of a committee to work on the development of national standards and guidelines for solar thermal systems and photovoltaic panels, led by the National Institute of Standardization INTECO.
This year the priority topics for the association are the promotion of an adequate framework for solar PV, distributed generation, and triggering of financial options for investment in solar systems.
Photos 2 : Enerland Group A solar wave in sight After some years of patient development efforts, the Mexican utility scale PV plants market is about to take off.
Still, despite of more than 1 GW of projects registered, most of these developments will have to wait at least until to see the light of day.
The muchawaited legal reform is expected to trigger a sector with good perspectives. T he Mexican PV sector is arousing great expectations within and outside its borders.
Aura Solar, installed in the municipality of La Paz, Baja California, has been the symbol of the kick-off for the promising utility scale solar segment in Mexico.
There are several reasons to remain optimistic. Multinational solar companies see Mexico as one of the most promising markets for PV technology.
Some large players, such as Canadian Solar who last December announced the supply of 8. However, all the aspects regarding remuneration for RE projects and the possibility of a predictable income and revenues are still to be regulated in secondary legislation that is currently under discussion.
Besides, there is no certainty about the date of approval and the detailed scope of the new ruling. In fact, the government sent a first draft to the Senate for discussion in April.
According to Krap, the whole regulatory approval process may take between 1 and 2 years. The new inauguration of utility scale projects is long overdue.
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Barriers In fact, the barriers to be overcome for a large PV project in Mexico are considerable.
All interviewees agreed on the lack of really clear and foreseeable procedures as well as a certain bureaucracy, together with the aforementioned energy price uncertainty and the distrust of financial institutions.
Achieving all the permits may take between 1 and 2 years. Likewise, states such as Durango or Sonora face high crime and corruption rates, which can discourage foreign investors.
It is also crucial to know the local legislation in detail. In , Mexico approved a net metering regulation for projects up to 30 kW that was enlarged to kW in This type of system has been most successful with consumers paying the highest electricity tariff, the so-called DAC 30 tariff.
For those consumers, installing a PV system will pay off within 4 to 7 years. The small-scale segment seems to be booming. By the end of the systems under this scheme amounted to In more detail, the most dynamic segment was the one with systems below 10 kW.
Out of 4, net metering systems, some 4, were below the 10 kW threshold. This market is growing in a sustainable way, which is creating new jobs and PV companies.
We expect this segment to grow faster, starting in According to Krap, this segment is growing, although it will still take a larger market volume to reduce the technology end prices.
Strategy With a dynamic economy and important growth perspectives, solar PV will surely play a key role in the Mexican energy market.
Nevertheless, until a more stable framework is approved, solar developers and installers should choose the best market entering strategy.
I would recommend identifying a reliable partner to form a local joint venture. Companies are doing their homework.
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There is no better place to meet the key decision makers in the power generation industry. Please visit www. H ow is the market for large-scale solar thermal systems developing?
There are attractive regional markets worldwide for large solar systems. When asked what the five most important markets were, the respondents named 46 different countries.
The fact that so many companies do business successfully in Germany can be attributed to its large and relatively advanced solar thermal market.
The large number of companies that identified Germany as their most important market can be chalked up, at least in part, to the fact that of the 31 companies taking part in the survey, six were German.
In terms of incentives, however, Germany was far from the top of the list among the respondents.
Austria and Switzerland were cited most frequently as the countries with the best government support programmes for large solar thermal systems.
But Korea, Italy, and Lebanon are also considered countries with attractive incentive programmes. Just what exactly constitutes a large-scale system is not easy to define.
This survey is based on the very 32 Photo: Ariston Thermo broad definition of a large-scale systems, which it characterises as any system with more than 20 m2 of collector area; that is, any system too large for a typical single-family home.
Ernst Schweizer is a company that deviated from this definition, as its response to the survey did not include any systems smaller than 50 m2.
The largest market segment belongs to the smallest large-scale systems, those that range from 20 to m2. On average, the surveyed companies said that nearly three-fourths of the large-scale systems they sell were smaller than m2 Fig.
Systems approaching the MW capacity level are rare. Nevertheless, 18 of the 31 participants have already sold systems with more than 1, m2 of surface area.
As recently as a few years ago, many of solar thermal system providers still used their own personnel to install their systems.
That has changed significantly. Numerous other companies also work together with subcontractors. However, system planning still very frequently handled by the solar companies themselves.
Other companies offer planners support. Every manufacturer was asked to name up to five countries.
Regional differences also come into play. In Central Europe, system providers generally have nothing to do with planning and installation, as independent planning offices and installation firms usually take care of this.
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Regional differences also come into play. In Central Europe, system providers generally have nothing to do with planning and installation, as independent planning offices and installation firms usually take care of this.
But even in that market there are exceptions, such as Ritter XL Solar in Germany, which maintains a firm grip on system planning.
Broad distribution of applications Distribution by system size 2 2 Fig. The percentages were calculated by company and were not weighted by absolute system size.
Source: company data 34 Nearly half of all large-scale solar thermal systems provide heat for multifamily homes Fig.
Agriculture often requires heat for drying processes, an ideal application for air collector sys2 tems.
Prisons and military housing facilities also have a high hot water demand. Currently, the biggest solar thermal systems are those that feed heat into district heating networks.
For such applications 1, m2 does not go very far. The Danish company Arcon Solar is a specialist in this type of system.
The huge installation in Vojens will be producing the majority of the energy consumed in the half-year of summer.
Because demand is low in summertime, the energy will be stored in a water tank where to million litres of water will be heated up.
This stored energy can be used in wintertime when people start to turn up their radiators again. An important factor affecting the demand for large-scale solar heating systems is the uncertainty with regard to the price development in the fossil fuels market.
A solar heating installation has an expected lifetime of at least 25 years. In addition to the investment in the installation itself, the ordinary cost of operation and maintenance during this period has to be factored in, whereas the energy from the sun is, of course, free of charge.
This locks in a guaranteed fixed energy price for 25 years and reduces dependency on fossil fuels. Security and minimal risk have become strong selling points.
The longterm fixed cost level, in particular, is a key motivation driving demand. There are also huge regional differences in applications.
In Europe, the multifamily home sector is particularly strong. The demand for heating energy drops off the farther south you go.
Combi systems are thus more common in Central Europe. Hotels all over the world need plenty of hot water.
Central European hoteliers have not yet caught on tar heating is ideally suited to that purpose, however.
The tourism sector in the Mediterranean and the Arab world has shown a far greater interest in solar thermal.
Process heat, on the other hand, is much more frequently cited by Asian companies as an important segment for solar thermal.
Which sectors are in and which are out? The survey shows that solar process heat is no easy business. More so than in any other application, respondents said that the business was contracting.
In contrast, many companies see strong growth ahead for domestic hot water systems in multifamily homes and the tourism sector. Overall, sceptics are in the minority, however.
Generally, most of the companies see large-scale systems as up and coming. Nevertheless, process heat systems can be built in regions with even less intense solar radiation than in Germany.
Ritter Xl Solar supplied a system for the public transport company in Cologne, Germany which provides heat to dry paint on a painting line.
That's why we invest in ensuring all our products comply with Australian and European Technical Standards. Contact : Fax : Fig.
Source: company data Solar Edition www. Source: company data 36 large-Scale SyStemS In most large solar thermal systems, pumps in the solar circuit ensure that heat from the collectors ends up in the storage tank Fig.
Thermosiphonic systems do not use a pump at all. Instead, gravity circulation alone transports the heat. Air collectors are a special case in which fans circulate air, which serves as the heat transfer medium.
There are also different approaches to production and storage of domestic hot water. In the simplest and cheapest systems, the drinking water flows directly through the collectors.
The level of hygiene in the water of such systems is not for those with high standards. Drinking water in the solar circuit is not an option in climates with freezing temperatures in winter.
These systems also have to store large quantities of domestic hot water. In unfavourable conditions, dangerous legionella bacteria can propagate.
Lime scale deposits provide a fertile breeding ground for the bacteria. All of this can be avoided if a buffer tank is used which only heats water as it is needed.
Fresh water modules are increasingly being used for that purpose. These modules draw buffer water from the hot water tank and use it to heat drinking water via a plate heat exchanger.
Fresh water modules can be used centrally for an entire building or in a distributedfashion for individual residential units.
Central fresh water modules are becoming increas- ingly important. These much sought-after systems are gaining traction at the expense of systems that store hot drinking water.
But this, too, is subject to regional differences. Although there is a recognisable trend toward fresh water systems in the USA and Europe, in other parts of the world inexpensive systems that heat drinking water directly in the collectors are still in high demand.
How much do large scale systems cost? The Siko Solar system for the multifamily passive-house residential building is also in this range.
Some systems can run double that cost or more, however. Systems that heat up water directly in the collectors are even cheaper.
The return on investment for that system is a mere 20 months. That is an amortisation period Central European system providers can only dream of.
At Siko Solar the amortisation time is 12 years. Even at that rate, however, a kWh of solar heat costs just 5. That is clearly less than what Central Europeans pay for heat from natural gas.
Hot water production with fresh water stations is becoming increasingly important, however.
Many of the respondents said that domestic hot water produced directly in collectors was becoming outdated. Photo: solarklima In order to ensure a long service life for heat transfer fluid, the appropriate product needs to be selected for solar thermal power plants.
At that point, the heat has already affected the antifreeze fluid in the solar collector so much that it is destroyed.
If things are going particularly badly, the decomposition products may have already settled as a layer on the tube walls or accumulated in corners as a sticky sludge.
In unfavourable circumstances, it may take only a few months for the decomposing heat transfer fluid to ruin a solar thermal plant worth several thousand Euros.
Once the degradation starts, after all, it progresses at an increasingly rapid pace. It is therefore very important not to lose the label stating the heat transfer type, antifreeze protection and replacement date.
If the fluid is already very cloudy, has a high amount of particulate matter or has fallen below the minimum pH value, simple replacement will no longer be sufficient.
Thorough removal is also required if the heat transfer is found to not actually be suitable for the system in question.
Before rinsing, as much of the old fluid as possible needs to be removed. Finally, it must be thoroughly removed from the system, using compressed air if possible.
Only in the case of heat Solar Edition transfer media that are especially designed for high temperatures do the additives evaporate together with the fluid.
It is well known that heat negatively affects solar fluids, but, in practice, stagnation cannot be avoided. Should it get too hot, a cross valve switches over from storage to a heat sink.
However, the product with the highest figure is not necessarily the most stable, since for many companies, the data comes from autoclave tests in the lab.
If there is already corroded metal in the collector circuit, moreover, the metal oxides act as catalysts. Minimising oxygen as a stress factor is, again, a job for the installer.
Aqua-Concept and SolarUS, for example, use the same base material but specify dramatically different values. While the test does not reflect the conditions in a solar thermal power system, it is currently the only suitable, standardised procedure for comparing the durability and aggressiveness of antifreeze agents for different metals.
Photo: Tyforop heat tranSfer fluidS advises against the use of not closed automatic exhaust fans. When comparing the outcomes of ASTM tests, the fine print therefore deserves attention.
They both use the same 1. No testing standardisation in sight Dirk Wittig, CEO of Wittig, observes that customers lately have been attaching more value to quality.
Researchers also use the test structure, which tries to emulate a genuine solar circuit including collectors in material, form, temperature and flow rate, to conduct the fluid tests which aluminium manufacturer Hydro uses to determine approval for its absorbers.
So far, however, the test is not set up to be a general comparison test for solar fluids.
Sunex recently added the SL AL fluid to its product line. According to some companies, the fluid manufacturers have also noticed the market downturn.
Margins are getting tighter for the fluid manufacturers. Corn instead of crude oil One alternative to glycol is antifreeze agents based on 1.
Chemiehandelsgesellschaft, part of the Stockmeier Group, acquired F. Silbermann in June after approval from the German Cartel Office, retroactively applied to January Eva Augsten This corrugated pipe is contaminated with black sludge from decomposed antifreeze fluid.
Market leaders show lots of optimism According to the company, the Sunny Boy was developed mainly for the North American market, but can be used worldwide.
T he year launched the next chapter of the success story of micro-inverters and DC optimizers for PV systems. At any rate, the Canadian market research firm and publishing company Electronics.
The market researchers of Navigant Research report a similar story and make the industry hope for a dynamic development.
Navigant thus predicts growth to a production volume of Furthermore, there are many established companies that enter into partnerships with producers of power electronics or buy them up, Navigant adds.
This trend is expected to accelerate even further in the next few years. The drivers of this development are technical progress, cost reduction and political factors.
According to Electronics. Like the research institutes, they are quite optimistic about the future of their industry.
However, in the case of power optimizers, we are also seeing increased demand from the commercial sector. Proof for this is the fact, the company says, that leading module and inverter manufacturers now also integrate this technology into their products.
The expectations are primarily based on the advantage to be able to communicate with the module, Bickford continues because communication enables amonst others advanced safety functions, as well as larger energy harvests, longer strings, lower system costs, as well as improved and easier maintenance.
They are the technology of the future. Power conversion at module level It is widely believed that Enphase Energy is market leader for the manufacturing and marketing of micro-inverters.
However, the Californian company does strictly not talk about individual units, but about a complete microsolution. The service is also expressly included.
It improves the solar yield and simplifies the installation and management of solar power systems. According to Enphase, the unit is based on the inverters of the third generation and forms a new standard for the micro-inverters with a reduced number of parts.
According to the company, it was developed primarily for the North American market, but can be used worldwide. The unit is particularly suited to small photovoltaic systems with complicated shading situations and photovoltaics integrated into buildings, it is stated further.
It provides high flexibility when planning systems in the power range below two kilowatt. We are your independent consultant for every phase of your project!
Your contact: Mr. The smallest of the family can be combined with the monitoring solution Sunny Multigate.
The easy-to-handle units are designed for module voltages of a maximum of 60 V, the MPPT voltage ranges from 27 to 45V. The maximum output power is specified as W or W, respectively.
In addition to the inverter, the complete system includes the communication gateway LeadSolar Link and the monitoring platform LeadSolar Management.
LeadSolar Link monitors the safe function and the performance of the module and can be supplied as Utility, Residential Superior and Residential Basic versions.
LeadSolar Management provides customers with the option to visually represent the module or PV system. Micro-inverters are usually combined into one system with a gateway technology and a web-based software.
It also transmits performance information to the internet for ubiquitous access. According to co-founder Alexandre Kral, Chilicon Power is currently only selling its microinverters in North America, but is planning to extend the sale to South America at some stage.
Amongst the inverters supplied by the company so far, the APS YCA is the flagship, which is able to handle two solar modules simultaneously.
The next manufacturer intending to introduce his product here is SolarBridge Technologies from Austin in Texas.
It designs, develops and produces a microinverter series named Pantheon. The Pantheon II micro-inverters are certified and approved for installation not only in the United States of America and Canada, but also in Australia.
Available for selection are inverters with capacities of W and W with a maximum DC input voltage of 65V, which enables connection of cell modules.
The ABB Concentrator Data Device forms the communication interface between the inverter system and the system operator.
It shows the current system status via an integrated display. For a complete and detailed status report, the integrated web server can be used at local level.
And how does she assess the market potential? The simplification of site design using microinverters makes it attractive to growth markets with relatively inexperienced solar installation and design resources.
As markets mature and look for cost optimisation, the market will utilise micro-inverters for energy production in the part of the market with sub-optimal site shading.
The maximizers are equipped with communication components, analog sensors as well as a switching technology for DC performance control, and communicate with the MMU, either via cable or radio.
This device combination then determines and adjusts the MPP of the individual modules based on module and string information. The MMU also serves as internet access, so that the performance data can be transmitted to the Tigo analytical unit.
The add-on optimizer OPV is designed for two cell modules connected in series. Due to the higher voltage and performance values, this unit is ideally suited to commercial use.
According to the data sheet, the peak efficiency for both optimizers is specified as SolarEdge has by its own account delivered a total of 3.
Trina Solar, Ltd. Communication between the modules and the system monitoring is radio-based via a gateway to the monitoring and management unit MMU, which is also supplied by Tigo.
According to the data sheet, a maximum of modules can be assigned to each gateway, and up to seven gateways can be assigned to each MMU.
The MMU calculates and controls the operating points of the modules in real-time, and transmits all data to a monitoring portal, from where the system operator can then request and use them internet-based, that is via smartphone or laptop.
Furthermore, he revealed that TrinaSolar is considering an integrated AC module, but currently has no commercially available product.
Energy Management No matter what kind of inverter you use, we have you covered. And did we mention our sleek and informative user interface?
San Francisco July 8 - 10, Booth. For years things were quiet around the tracking system market. But as trackers become less costly and innovative systems are being developed, leading manufacturers think that the ugly duckling might soon turn into a swan.
The SolBot on its way to turn the trackers. Photo: QBotix 48 I n the last few years the tracking market has changed rapidly.
During the Spanish boom in and about 50 to modules were needed for a plant with a capacity of 1 MW, today just 40 to 80 modules achieve the same capacity.
Technological developments have also led to a drop in tracker prices, which means that the systems are now becoming competitive.
Of course there are different approaches for surviving within a struggling market. Either a company finds its niche or it offers a wide range of services.
Nuevosol, for example, only sells horizontal axis trackers for use in regions close to the equatorial belt. In comparison to this, Romain Buisine, Business Development Manager at Jusheng Solar, says that they do not want to narrow down their possible target markets and that they are ready to deliver their systems anywhere in the world.
Their product portfolio includes horizontal, tilted, azimuth and even concentrated photovoltaic CPV trackers. When asked about future markets, tracking expert Deger Energy also sees several potential markets all over the world.
But these wind speeds only occur during a very strong storm or a hurricane, which means that the modules themselves will very likely be damaged some time before those speeds are reached.
But while there is a safety regulation for fixed systems in the US, there are no definite safety regulations for tracking systems right now.
There is only a Eurocode for grounding and the CE-mark, which the companies can assign themselves. We consider it a key point to certify with independent engineering companies.
Deger also deals with the issue of wind resistance. Its new two-axis tracker D60H was especially created for regions with high wind loads.
Another advantage of the new system is that Deger simplified the installation by pre-assembling some components. This means that no cranes or specialised workmanship are needed.
In contrast to the other companies mentioned in this article, Deger uses its Maximum Light Detection Sensor MLD instead of astronomical tracking via algorithms.
High concentration PV For concentrated photovoltaics a highprecision alignment with a deviation below 0. This means CPV trackers have to be constantly adjusted and use more energy than conventional PV trackers, which only move for approximately 30 min per day.
Additionally, the strict alignment means that if the tracker motor is broken, there will be no electricity production at all. For example, three quarters of the plant can be normal PV trackers and one quarter will be concentrated PV trackers.
If the CPV works, it will increase the overall yield of the plant, but if the CPV trackers malfunction, the conventional horizontal tracking systems will still work.
Their robotic tracking system or RTS consists of around photovoltaic trackers with 6 modules each and the trackers are installed on a rail.
The innovative part about this is that the trackers themselves do not have motors. With this, tilt and azimuth tracking is possible. Amidst such interesting developments Deger also looks positively into the future.
By now a lot of investors have adapted their business models so that solar energy pays off without state subsidies.
W hen it comes to PV manufacturing for the U. The bestpositioned U. However, U. Consequently, also witnessed some notable historical producers such as REC, SolarWorld and Sharp announce layoffs and plant shutdowns, a reminder that consolidation in the manufacturing landscape will still continue despite improving business conditions and overall market growth.
Wafer production in the last quarter has been gone down to 11 MW of wafers by the only remaining U.
Good news came from the inverter sector. In the residential sector, deployment of U. The total reported production capacity in the U.
For the end customer looking to install PV arrays on their house, there is little to no information at all. ATI , said the U.
A federal renewable energy standard applied to all states would drive growth further and more uniformly across the country.
We believe that the Q1 hiccup was primarily due to lower PPA prices that did not anticipate stable or higher module prices.
Beale, General Manager and President. Another side effect of the residential market getting momentum has been seen by Dean Middleton, Director of Renewable Energy Sales for Trojan Battery, a leading manufacturer of deep-cycle batteries.
The company with its headquarter in Santa Fe Springs, CA, with employees, usually focuses on the offgrid market which is less affected by the uncertainty of subsidies.
Although, Middleton wished that storage solutions would be included in the state or federal subsidy programmes to shorten the payback period for solar systems with battery back-up.
This development is still not backed up by many state policies. With TE technology driving your product, you can simplify design, manufacturing, and installation while optimizing speed, power and performance.
The possibilities are endless. Tour our 3D Intelligent Building at te. All Rights Reserved. Solar Edition 53 Photovoltaics thailand Solar energy can mitigate impact of weather-related disasters The pictures show some effects of the flood crisis for people and energy production in Thailand.
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